Under the watchful eye of the ant queen, the brood develops through three immature life stages. The eggs become larvae and then pupae. By constantly picking them up and cleaning them, the queen protects her young from dangerous bacteria and mold. Her attentions also provide the brood with tactile stimulus and and coat them in nutritious pheromones that myrmecologists (ant scientists) call the "Queen Substance". The queen's life too depends on her larvae and pupae becoming ants -- she hasn't eaten since she left her home colony, mated in mid-air, dug a tunnel underground and laid her eggs. She won't survive much longer without the help of her offspring. Fortunately, the minute a new ant is born it begins assisting its mother. This program was made with the generous assistance of the University of California Los Angeles, Department of Entomology.