Liquid crystals, like those found in TV and clock displays, are chemical compounds. They are a hybrid state of matter that exhibit properties of both liquids and solid crystals. As they cool on a microscope slide, they crystallize. The actual samples of liquid crystals in this episode were originally synthesized in the 1960s and 1970s by the late IBM research scientist and crystal spiritualist, Marcel Vogel. Polarized microscopy at 40x magnification. Field of view: 3mm. Music by Ariel Pink.